Cybernetics ...
  "the science and art of understanding"... - Humberto Maturana
  "interfaces hard competence with the hard problems of the soft sciences" - Heinz von Foerster
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  These links lead to Web resources of substantive relevance to the fields of cybernetics, systems theory, and related disciplines.

The particular webspaces listed here were selected so as to provide ASC members and visitors with a tractable number of individual sites affording the maximum coverage (including the maximum forward links) to the subject matter.

If you would like to submit a relevant webpage for inclusion in this listing, please email the ASC webmaster with the URL.




The Principia Cybernetica site is the largest Web 'nexus' on cybernetics and general systems theory. It materials include bibliographies, articles, introductory overviews, and an extensive lexicon incorporating the ASC Glossary.



Austrian Society for Cognitive Science

This Web nexus on the subject of radical constructivism addresses people, organizations, and online papers that deal with radical, epistemological, psychological and educational constructivism and second order cybernetics.

The site provides links on the subjects of (e.g.): constructivism, second order cybernetics, autopoiesis, epistemology, philosophy, Humberto Maturana, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Heinz von Foerster, Jakob von Uexküll, Gordon Pask, George Kelly, and Francesco Varela. Maintained by Alex Riegler.

The Observer Web

The Observer Web is the single largest, most comprehensive online reference nexus on the subjects of autopoiesis and enaction. The Observer Web exists at two sites now:

Towards an
Ecology of Mind

(Language = English)

Della Mente

(Language = Italian)

This bilingual Web site is dedicated to alternative thinkers including:

  • Gregory Bateson

  • Ernst von Glasersfeld

  • Humberto Maturana

    In addition to substantive materials on these and other relevant thinkers, this site offers a number of papers and articles online.


    (The Complexity & Artificial Life Research Concept for Self-Organizing Systems)

    This site is a nexus on complexity / chaos theory, self-organization, artificial life, and a number of other interrelated topics. The Calresco site includes a huge set of links to materials in these areas.

    Instituto de


    (Primary Language = Spanish)
    (Limited English section available)

    Humberto Maturana is a co-founder (with Ximena Davila) of Instituto de Formación Matríztica in Chile.

    This institute provides information and courses on the biology of cognition / biology of love.

    The materials offered at this site include a bibliography of Maturana's publications, a Maturana essay, links to other resources, and information on the intensive courses the Institute offers on the biology of cognition / biology of love.


    The field of biosemiotics intersects with the explanatory context(s) of the biology of cognition in many ways. This Estonian site is one of the central Webspaces on the subject.

    ...And you should take a look at their Ecosemiotics page, too!

    Home Page

    Another site dedicated to biosemiotics. Includes a good summary introduction to the subject entitled What is Biosemiotics?.



    This site hosted by David A. Reid has moved from its original location to Acadia University. It focuses on 'enactivism' -- the application of principles and themes from enactive cognitive science to education. This site offers an Enactivism Readings page.


    Whole Systems

    Webspace dedicated to the many aspects of 'whole systems'. Extensive sets of links that you can explore.


    Paul Pangaro
    Web Site

    Paul Pangaro, PhD, was a student of Gordon Pask. He maintains a personal Web site on second-order cybernetics and his applications of its tenets to enterprise issues.

    This site is also the home of the Pask Archive.

    Ackoff Center for Advancement of Systems Approaches

    In July 2000, the School of Engineering and Applied Science of the University of Pennsylvania announced the creation of the Ackoff Center for Advancement of Systems Approaches (ACASA). Named for Dr. Russell Ackoff, Emeritus Anheuser-Busch Professor of the Wharton School, the center operates as a think tank in the vanguard of systems approaches.

    ACASA is dedicated to education, research and service to industry, government and education, using systems sciences and systems thinking and global knowledge and competency resources.

    Logic Web Site

    "The idea of an extension of classical logic to cover simultaneously active ontological locations was introduced by Gotthard GŁnther (1900-1984, US-American thinker, born in Germany, colleague of Heinz von Foerster at the BCL, Urbana, Illinois). The idea of Polycontextural Logic originates from GŁnther's studies of the work of Hegel, Schelling and the foundation of cybernetics in cooperation with Warren St. McCulloch. His aim was to develop a philosophical theory and a mathematics of dialectics and of self-referential systems - a cybernetic theory of subjectivity as an interplay of cognition and volition."


    A website dedicated to a variety of subjects, including cybernetics and information sciences. Vordenker provides links and materials relating to (e.g.) Gotthard Günther, Heinz von Foerster, Francisco Varela, and Gordon Pask.

    Naturalized Phenomenology

    Glenn Braddock, University at Albany, State University of New York

    Here you'll find links to particularly helpful or interesting sources of information about consciousness and the role of phenomenology in cognitive science.

    and the

    From the introductory page:

    "This website is dedicated to providing resources focusing on the intersection of phenomenology and the cognitive sciences. ... The set of resources provided here includes:

    • theoretical explorations of the possible relations between phenomenology and cognitive science

    • practical and applied research that employs phenomenological resources in cognitive science

    • materials to support teaching and research in this area

    Phenomenology is understood as a philosophical discipline and method in the tradition started by Edmund Husserl, and including the work of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and numerous others. Emphasis is placed on embodied or enactive approaches."


    Biogenetic Structuralism

    The themes and orientation of biogenetic structuralism bear some resemblances to Maturana and Varela's original positions. As such, there's some parallelism between biogenetic structuralism and the biology of cognition / autopoietic theory.

    "Over the years a group of us have developed a body of theory we call biogenetic structuralism. The original book of that title (Laughlin and d'Aquili 1974) represented an interdisciplinary merger of anthropology, psychology and the neurosciences. It presented the view that the universal structures characteristic of human language, cognition about time and space, affect, certain psychopathologies, and the like were due to the genetically predisposed organization of the nervous system. It seemed to us preposterous (and still does) that the invariant patterns of behavior, cognition and culture being discussed in various structuralist theories could be lodged anywhere other than in the nervous system."

    This site includes a Self-Guided Tutorial on biogenetic structuralism.

    Related Sites


    A large listing of constructivism links

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